## Thursday, 16 July 2015

### Generations of generating functions in dividing cells

Cell biology is a unpredictable world, as we've written about before. The important machines in our cells replicate and degrade in processes that can be described as random; and when cells divide, the partitioning of these machines between the resulting cells also looks random. The number of machines we have in our cells is important, but how can we work with numbers in this unpredictable environment?
 In our cells, machines are produced (red), replicate (orange), and degrade (purple) randomly with time, as well as being randomly partitioned when cells split and divide (blue). Our mathematical approach describes how the total number of machines is likely to behave and change with time and as cells divide.

Tools called "generating functions" are useful in this situation. A generating function is a mathematical function (like G(z) = z2, but generally more complicated) that encodes all the information about a random system. To find the generating function for a particular system, one needs to consider all the random things that can happen to change the state of that system, write them down in an equation (the "master equation") describing them all together, then use a mathematical trick to push that equation into a different mathematical space, where it is easier to solve. If that "transformed" equation can be solved, the result is the generating function, from which we can then get all the information we could want about a random system: the behaviour of its mean and variance, the probability of making any observation at any time, and so on.

We've gone through this mathematical process for a set of systems where individual cellular machines can be produced, replicated, and degraded randomly, and split at cell divisions in a variety of different ways. The generating functions we obtain allow us to follow this random cellular behaviour in new detail. We can make probabilistic statements about any aspect of the system at any time and after any number of cell divisions, instead of relying on assumptions that the system has somehow reached an equilibrium, or restricting ourselves to a single or small number of divisions. We've applied this tool to questions about the random dynamics of mitochondrial DNA (which we're very interested in! And this work connects explicitly with our recent eLife paper - blog article here) in cells that divide (like our cells) or "bud" (like yeast cells), but the approach is very general and we hope it will allow progress in many more biological situations. You can read about this, free, here under the title "Closed-form stochastic solutions for non-equilibrium dynamics and inheritance of cellular components over many cell divisions" in the Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Iain and Nick

1. Quite honestly, foreign exchange buying and selling is the act of purchasing and promoting currencies. That is the arena’s biggest economic market with a day by day turnover of \$five trillion and it entails many people – and many currencies. Because you're usually buying one foreign money the use of any other foreign money, you trade ‘currency pairs’.
forex signal provider
Best Forex Signals

2. World Best Forex Signals And Forex Trade Copier Service Provider is HotForexSignal.

3. Do you think that to dramatically improve your success rate you have to read tons of thick books, buy expensive software and spend countless hours of learning more about Forex?

What I'm going to share with you is something very EASY to use and very POWERFUL at the same time.

Let me give you an EXAMPLE:

Imagine you trade a system that makes 50% winning trades, but another 50% are losing trades. If you increase your odds of winning by only 20%, that would make 70% winning trades and 30% losing trades.

Well, HOW TO accomplish that?

Just pick the best trending pair at the current time and simply follow the trend! I have found ONE INCREDIBLE TOOL that continuously scans the Forex market and picks the most reliable trending pairs for you.

==> http://www.forextrendy.com?casjdgciua834

By taking signals in the direction of a strong trend you would REDUCE UNNECESSARY LOSSES and increase the odds of winning. You need to know "how well" the market is trending to avoid very short-term trends.

STOP hunting the market for every potential trade. Pick only the best trending pairs and time frames and DO NOT take any trading signals in the choppy market (unless you know exactly what you are doing).

Successful traders keep it simple and this is the way how the pros made fortunes in the markets - by trading less and making more.

To increase the profitability of any system or robot you are currently using, check out this easy and powerful ultimate solution:

==> http://www.forextrendy.com?casjdgciua834

4. "Which Forex pair and time frame is best to trade" is the frequently asked question and I want do give you the DEFINITE ANSWER.
Are you expecting that I am going to say something like EUR/USD on 5-minute time frame or GBP/USD on daily...? No, it is not so simple, but SIMPLE ENOUGH we can figure it out!
The "PROBLEM" is that markets change over time. If GBP/USD was a well trending currency pair a few years ago, today it is another one.
I actually want to let you know about a SPECIAL TOOL that I use to find the BEST TRENDING PAIRS among all the Forex pairs.
==> http://www.forextrendy.com?hfsdtb63546
The software scans 34 Forex pairs on all time frames from minute to monthly. This way you pick the best trending pair and time frame at the current time.
The system is running on our powerful computers, so you have nothing to download and install. Just join in and start using it within a FEW MINUTES! Get it on the link below:
==> http://www.forextrendy.com?hfsdtb63546

5. Let me explain the basic principle how most Forex systems work. They are tuned up to work in a specific market condition. They often make money in a trending market, but loose money in a choppy market. It is not a problem as long as the market is trending and the system is making more money than it loses. Such a system can be profitable for several months and you would be happy with it. BUT...
PREPARE FOR THE WORST...
Market change over time. A well designed system starts with trend analysis to stay away from potentially losing trades. There are two problems of how a Forex system recognizes the trend.
PROBLEM: FALSE "STRONG TREND" INDICATION.
The system responds only to immediate price action. An explosive price movement that is usually the result of news release is tempting people to jump in and make a profit. It looks like a "strong trend", but what usually happens next is a hard fall.
To avoid falling into this trap, check for the SOLUTION to find a REAL trend:
==> http://www.forextrendy.com?nsjjd92834
SECOND PROBLEM: TREND RELIABILITY
Most systems use various indicators to determine the trend. Actually, there is nothing bad about using indicators. One Simply Moving Average can do the job. The problem comes with the question: "Is the market trending NOW?" Whether the market is trending or not trending is not like black and white. The correct question is: "How well the market is trending?"
And here we have something called TREND RELIABILITY.
Trends exist and they can be traded up and down for a profit. You have to focus only on the most reliable market trends. "Forex Trendy" is a software solution to find the BEST trending currency pairs, time frames and compute the trend reliability for each Forex chart:
==> http://www.forextrendy.com?nsjjd92834